1. In this section, the term children is used for skeletally immature that refers to age under 18. Infant, child and adolescent spinal problems will be discussed. 

    For the disorders observed in skeletally mature patients please visit the section adults.


  1. Scoliosis - Kyphosis

    1. Anatomy of the Spine and Spinal Cord

    2. What is Scoliosis?

    3. Signs and Symptoms of Scoliosis

    4. Causes of Scoliosis

    5. Idiopathic Scoliosis Types

    6. How is Scoliosis Diagnosed?

    7. Scoliosis Examination

    8. Scoliosis Radiographs

    9. Scoliosis and Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaires (HRQoL)

    10. Scoliosis Imaging

    11. What is EOS Radiography?

    12. What are the advantages of EOS?

    13. Is MRI and CT Scans Necessary for Scoliosis?

    14. Types of Scoliosis

    15. Brace Treatment

    16. Which scoliosis brace is better?

    17. What are the expected results of bracing?

    18. How long the brace should be worn?

    19. Schroth Method for Scoliosis Rehabilitation

    20. Non-Surgical Treatment in Scoliosis?

    21. When is scoliosis surgery necessary?

    22. What are the other factors for scoliosis surgery desicion?

    23. What are the other factors affecting the surgery desicion?

    24. What hapens if surgery is not performed for scoliosis?

    25. Surgical Treatment of Scoliosis

    26. Surgical Considerations:

    27. Instrumented Posterior Spinal Fusion

    28. What is Congenital Scoliosis?

    29. How do spinal anomalies develop?

    30. Signs of congenital scoliosis

    31. Is Congenital Spinal Deformity a Genetic Condition?

    32. Diagnosis and Follow-Up for congenital scoliosis

    33. Treatment of Congenital Scoliosis

    34. What is Early Onset Scoliosis?

    35. Why is Early Onset Scoliosis Deformity More Problematic Than Adolescent Deformity?

    36. Treatment of Early Onset Scoliosis

    37. Syndromic – Neuromuscular Scoliosis

    38. Postural Kyphosis

    39. How can Postural Kyphosis be Corrected?

    40. What’s the Difference Between Scheuermann's Kyphosis and Kyphosis Due to Poor Posture?

    41. Scheuermann’s Kyphosis

    42. Glossary of Medical Terms Used for Scoliosis and Kyphosis

  2. Spinal Disorders in Children

    1. Spinal Infections in Children

    2. Spinal Tumors in Children

  3. Vertebral Fractures in Children

    1. Vertebral Fractures and Spinal Cord Injuries in Children

    2. Spinal Stress Fractures (Spondylolisis)

  4. Spinal Surgeries in Children

    1. Details of Spinal Fusion Surgery

    2. Selective Fusion

    3. Magnetically Controlled Growing Rods

    4. Anterior Fusion

    5. Thoracoscopic Anterior Tethering

    6. Hemivertebrectomy and Limited Fusion

    7. What is Osteotomy Surgery?

    8. Minimally Invasive Scoliosis Surgery

    9. Neuromonitorization