Scoliosis - Kyphosis

Glossary of Medical Terms Used for Scoliosis and Kyphosis

    1. Adolescent scoliosis:­Bending of the spine to the side, which occurs after onset of puberty but before cessation of skeletal growth.
    2. Adult scoliosis:­Scoliosis that develops for any reason and after cessation of skeletal growth.
    3. Autograft bone:­Tissue harvested from the person's self and transferred to another part of the body (bone graft from the pelvic bone is often used for supporting the fusion).
    4. Allograft bone: Bone harvested from another patient.
    5. Autologous blood:­Blood withdrawn from a person to be given back later. This is a frequently used procedure that is done before elective surgical procedures where significant amount of blood loss is anticipated. This method may prevent the use of banked blood­from unknown donors, and significantly reduce the possibility of getting an infectious disease.
    6. Autotransfusion:­The technique and application of giving the previously withdrawn blood to a person.
    7. Cervical vertebra:­The part of the spine at the neck. It includes seven vertebras between the skull to the rib cage.
    8. Compensatory curve:­Secondary curve that arises under or above the major structural curve, in order to re-establish the normal body alignment.
    9. Congenital scoliosis:­Scoliosis that occurs as a result of inherent bone abnormalities. These abnormalities are classified as failure of vertebral formation and/or separation.
    10. Decompensation:­In the presence of scoliosis, this term is used when the thoracic cage is not exactly on the pelvic bones.
    11. Discectomy:­Removal of all or a portion of the intervertebral disc (soft tissue between each vertebral bone that acts as a shock absorber).
    12. Double curve:­The presence of two curves in separate directions in the same spine.
    13. Double major curve:­Scoliosis in which there are two structural curves often with equal degree. Double thoracic curve: Scoliosis with structural upper thoracic curve, larger and deforming lower thoracic curve, and relatively nonstructural lumbar curve.
    14. Hemivertebra:­A vertebra with incomplete development on one side, assuming a wedge shape due to an inherent disorder.
    15. Hysteric scoliosis:­A nonstructural deformity that develops as a sign of psychologic illness.
    16. Idiopathic scoliosis:­Structural curvature with unknown cause.
    17. Inclinometer:­Device that measures the thoracic rotation angle, also known as the angle of thoracic prominence.
    18. Infantile scoliosis:­Curvature that occurs before the end of age 3.
    19. Internal fixation:­Metal rods, hooks, screws, wires and/or plates
    20. Juvenile scoliosis:­Curvature that occurs between ages 3 and 10.
    21. Klippel-Feil Syndrome:­Fusion of two or more vertebrae from birth.
    22. Kyphoscoliosis:­Structural scoliosis that is related to incrcreased gibbosity.
    23. Kyphosis:­Convex angulation of the spine backwards when viewed from the side. The reverse of lordosis.
    24. Lordoscoliosis:­Scoliosis related to increased inward curve.
    25. Lordosis:­The anterior angulation of the spine in sagittal plane. The opposite of kyphosis.
    26. Lumbar curve:­Curve with the apex between the first and fourth lumbar vertebras (also known as lumbar scoliosis).
    27. Lumbosacral:­Regarding the lumbar and sacral areas of the lower spine.
    28. Lumbosacral curve:­Curve with the apex at or below the fifth lumbar vertebra (also known as lumbosacral scoliosis).
    29. Neuromuscular scoliosis:­Scoliosis that results from a disorder in the central nervous system or muscles.
    30. Non-structural curve:­Curve that does not leave a permanent deformity.
    31. Pedicle:­Bony structure that makes a projection from the posterior (toward the back) aspect of the vertebral body and that connects to the laminas from both sides.
    32. Posterior fusion:­The technique of stabilizing two or more vertebras with bone grafts, performed with a single incision on the back.
    33. Primary curve:­Curve that occurs first or the earliest.
    34. Risser sign:­A half half moon shaped bone formation in the upper part of the hip bones that occurs as the child develops. It is used in the determination of degree of skeletal development.
    35. Sacrum:­The triangle shaped bone located at the bottom of the spinal column, composed of five vertebras also known as sacral vertebras. The sacrum articulates (forms a joint) with the last lumbar vertebra above, and pelvic bones at the sides.
    36. Scoliometer:­Name given to a type of inclinometer that measures the torso rotation.
    37. Scoliosis:­Deviation of the normal vertical line more than 10 degrees to the side, measured on X rays. Scoliosis results from bending of the spine to the sides and rotation of the vertebras within the curve.
    38. Spinal instrumentation:­Metal pieces connected to the spine to decrease spinal deformity while fusion heals. These include rods, hooks, wires, numerous types of screws, and their combinations.
    39. Spondylitis:­An inflammatory disease of the spine.
    40. Spondylolisthesis:­Forward slipping of a vertebra off from the one below it.
    41. Structural curve:­The part of the spine that has a fixed curve to the side.
    42. Thoracic curve:­Curve of the spine where the apex is located between the second and eleventh thoracic vertebras.
    43. Thoracolumbar curve:­Curve of the spine with the apex located between the twelfth thoracic vertebra and first lumbar vertebra.
    44. Thoracolumbosacral orthosis (TLSO):­A type of brace that covers the thoracic and lumbar spine.
    45. Vertebral column:­The column that consists of mobile vertebral bones which are connected to each other with ligaments, that support the body and are separated by disc tissues and facet joints.